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Economic Analysis Of Date Palm Production In Jigawa State, Nigeria

Palm Production

ASSESSMENT OF JOURNALISTS ROLE IN THE PROMOTION OF NIGERIA HOMEGROWN RICE IN NORTH CENTRAL NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

The promotion of Nigerian homegrown rice has become necessary to boost farmer’s income, discourage importation and consumption of foreign rice. The purpose of this study was to assess journalists on the promotion of Nigeria homegrown rice. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 81 respondents. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics to determine the socioeconomic characteristic and the activities of respondents. The respondents (60.5%) were male while (66.7%) were married. House hold size (95.1%) were 1-10 while 53.1% of the respondents published rice promotion activities in newspapers monthly. Hypothesis was tested using chi-square and the result showed that there was significant relationship between the socioeconomic characteristic of journalists and their activities in the promotion of Nigeria homegrown rice. In other words, socioeconomic characteristics of journalists and the activities of journalists have influence in the promotion of Nigerian homegrown rice. We recommended that Communiqués on the promotion of Nigerian homegrown rice should be implemented by stakeholders in their respective organization. Media organizations should voluntarily encourage their journalists to sustain the tempo of broadcasting information that will discourage the consumption of foreign rice and encourage the consumption of Nigeria homegrown rice. Farmers should produce quality rice that will attract patronage by consumers and for easy promotion by the journalists. Journalists should be motivated to carry out their responsibilities by increasing their salaries, allowances and by provision of other working materials such as vehicle, video cameras, tape recorders etc.

Keywords: Promotion, Nigerian Homegrown Rice, Journalists.

ASSESSMENT OF RICE CONSUMERS’ ROLE IN THE PROMOTION OF NIGERIA HOMEGROWN RICE IN NORTH CENTRAL NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

The promotion of Nigeria homegrown rice (NHGR) has become necessary to boost farmer’s income, discourage importation and consumption of foreign rice, encourage consumption of Nigeria homegrown rice, increase food security and national economy. The purpose of this study is to assess rice consumers’ role in the promotion of Nigeria homegrown rice. Multistage sampling techniques were used to select 360 rice consumers from North central Nigeria (Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nasarawa State and Niger State). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and majority of the rice consumers and majority (55.3%), of the rice consumers were male, 61.4% married, 88.2% had house hold size of 1-10 persons, 52.7% had income level of N50,000-N100,000. All (100%) of the consumers consumed NHGR, 92.8% informed family and friends about taste and nutritional values of NHGR, 93.1% shared rice for promotion, 98.6%) eat NHGR and neglect foreign rice, 99.2% sell rice at affordable price 99.4% produce, process and market NHGR, 95.3% inform families and friends about better taste of NHGR then foreign rice, 95.6% inform families and friends about better nutritional values of NHGR than foreign rice and 95.6% inform families and friends  that NHGR swells better than foreign rice. Hypothesis was tested using chi-square and the result revealed that socioeconomic characteristic of rice consumers and their activities have positive influence on the promotion of Nigerian homegrown rice and socioeconomic factors of rice consumers have positive influence on the consumption of rice type.  We recommend that Local farmers should be supported with farm inputs such as processing, packaging and storage facilities to prevent stones and dirt’s. There should be public awareness on the newly improved Nigerian homegrown rice. Governments should uptake and subsidize the locally produced rice and make it available, affordable to consumers. Government should control smuggling of foreign rice into our country through our porous borders, boost rice farming production and reduced our dependence on foreign rice. Farmers should produce quality Nigerian homegrown rice and intensify its promotion.

Keywords: Promotion, Nigerian Homegrown Rice (NHGR), and Consumers.

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SMALLSCALE BROILER PRODUCTION IN GWAGWALADA AND KUJE AREA COUNCIL, FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, ABUJA, NIGERIA

Abstract

The study examined the economic analysis of smallscale broiler production in Gwagwalada and Kuje Area Councils of Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nigeria. Cross sectional data were collected from smallscale broiler producers through the use of well-structured questionnaires and used for the study. The data set was analyze using descriptive and inferential statistics. From the results, the study of the mean age was 41.03. Majority of them were male and married. From result the gross margin was N 165, 465, the rate of returns of the investment amounted to 1.02 and the operating ratio was 0.507. From the regression results R2 was 0.753 with F-statistics of 32.933. feed cost, cost of chemicals, day old chick, lanour, and farm experience were the significant variables influencing pepper output in the study area. Based on the findings, the study concluded that broiler production was profitable in the study area and thereby recommended that policy which will encourage broiler production be formulated and implemented. Also, measures be put in place to the address the challenge of high cost of feeds through proper subsidies.

 

ASSESSMENT OF LABOUR USE AND PRODUCTIVITY OF ARABLE CROPS AMONG RURAL FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN KWARA STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study examined the assessment of labour use and productivity of arable crops among rural farming households in Kwara State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of this research were to; identify the cropping patterns among rural farming households in the study area; examine the extent of labour use for the various cropping enterprises among rural farming households in the study area; identify effect of labour use on production of arable crops among rural farming households in the study area and examine the constraints to labour use among rural farming households in the study area. Data obtained were within the areas randomly selected of arable crop farmers. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, regression analysis, Partial Factor productivity and likert type scale. The results revealed that most of the sampled arable farmers were between the ages of 46-55 years old (46.3 %) while ninety (35.63) percent had between 6.0- 10.0 years of experience in arable farming. Analysis on the cropping patterns practiced revealed that mixed cropping was the common practice in the study area. Maize cropping was almost planted by all respondents. 32 % of the crop combination had cassava plantation and yam, maize and cassava were intercropped. The extent of labour use was examined in line in the study area, which shown that family, hired and communal labour were used to carry out different activities. Hired labour had the largest labour use in land clearing, planting, ridging, and herbicides application. Communal labour was predominantly used for weeding, insecticides application, fertilizer application and harvesting. The effect of labour use on production was determined by regression analyses and the labour use was 5 % significant on the farm output of arable crops with R2 of 0.482. The most severe challenge faced by arable crop farmers was high wage rate by the labourers. This was followed by schooling of the children, availability of off farm jobs, lackadaisical attitude of the labourers, inadequate skill among labourers, non-availability of the labourers and poor network of roads. The constraints were however considered very severe, severe, mildly severe not severe and not a problem.

POVERTY STATUS, INCOME INEQUALITY, AND SOCIAL ECONOMICS CHARACTERISTICS OF FEMALE HEADED FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN FCT ABUJA, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

The study evaluated the poverty status, income inequality and socio-economic characteristics of female headed farming households in Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria. Primary data were used for the study. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select a total sample size of three hundred and three (303) households from the two area councils. The data were analyse using descriptive statistics, Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (FGT) poverty index, Gini coefficients, Probit model analysis, multinomial Logit model analysis, principal components analysis (Factor Analysis), t -test, Z-Test, and Kruskal-Wallis Test. From the results about 59.73% of the female headed farming households were less than 50 years old. 31.35% of the female headed farming household were married. The mean household size was about 11.61 persons. The mean annual income was 374, 868 Naira. About 56.77% of the female headed farming household were poor given a poverty line N9, 009.37. In addition, 76% of female headed farming households fell into annual income of below N500, 000 and they control 40% of the market share. The Gini coefficient was calculated to be 0.62. Maximum Likelihood Estimates (MLE) of the Probit Model shows that the coefficients of marital status (P<0.01), educational level (P<0.05), household size (P<0.01), income (P<0.1), and sources of livelihood (P<0.1) were the statistically and significant factors influencing poverty status among the female headed farming households in the study area. The results of the multinomial Logit model analysis show that the factors that statistically and significantly influencing the income inequality of female headed farming households in the study area, were coefficient of marital status (P<0.05), educational level (P<0.10), access to credit(P<0.05), and sources of livelihood (P<0.05) for low income earners. Educational level (P<0.01), access to credit (P<0.10), farm size (P<0.01), were statistically and significant factors influencing income inequality or income distribution among high income earners among female headed farming households. Trading enterprise, cassava flour/garri processing, and palm/ groundnut oil pressing were major coping strategies employed by the female headed households to mitigate against poverty and income inequality. Based on the findings it was concluded that there was high income gap or income inequality among female headed farming households and they were poor. It was recommended that policies that will help create more credit access/Programs in terms of loan at low interest rates for women should be implemented at all tiers of government to help mitigate and reduce the poverty among female headed household. Women should also be encouraged to diversify their sources of livelihood this will help them to have a relative equality or balance in their income levels all year round.

PROFITABILITY AND RESOURCE USE EFFICIENCY OF CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus) PRODUCTION IN BENUE STATE, NIGERIA

Abstract

The study examined the profitability and resource use efficiency of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) production in Benue state, Nigeria. Cross sectional data were used for the study. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select a total of one hundred and fifty-eight (158) catfish farmers used for the study. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyzed the data set for the study. Cobb-Douglas regression analysis, stochastic frontier model, gross margin, and t – test analysis were used to analyze the stated objectives and hypotheses in the study. The results from the study revealed that the mean age of catfish farmers was 35.7 years, 62.7 % of the Catfish farmers were male, 93.9% of the Catfish farmers in the study had formal education, and the mean farm experience was 4.5 years. The resource use efficiency analysis show that fingerlings and Labour were under-utilized while pond size and quantity of feed were over utilized. Stochastic production frontier analysis model revealed that the mean technical efficiency was 73% giving a room for 27% improvement in efficiency. Coefficients of fingerlings (P<0.01), pond size (P<0.01), and water (P<0.01) were significant in determining technical efficiency. The inefficiency component revealed that the coefficients of age (P<0.01), marital status (P<0.1), and sex (P<0.01) were the significant variables influencing inefficiency. The net farm income was calculated to be N530, 666.27 with benefit cost ratio and rate of investment of 3.1 and 2.1 respectively. From the result inadequate fund was ranked 1st as the major constraint faced in catfish production, it was concluded that catfish production was a profitable enterprise in the study area and hence the study recommended that farmers be advice to venture into value addition program and courses that will build their technical know-how in catfish production for efficient utilization of resource for optimum production. Also, credit facilities should be made available and accessible at a relatively low interest rate to catfish farmers in the study area to boost and encourage production

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SMALLSCALE PEPPER Capsicum species PRODUCTION IN ABAJI AREA COUNCIL, FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, ABUJA, NIGERIA.

Abstract

The study examined the economic analysis of smallscale pepper production in Abaji Area Council of Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nigeria. Cross sectional data were collected from pepper producers through the use of well-structured questionnaires and used for the study. The data set was analyze using descriptive and inferential statistics. From the results from the study the mean age was 38.3 years, majority were male and married, the average family size was 5.34 persons. From result the gross margin was N 167, 741.60, the rate of returns of the investment amounted to 2.17 and the operating ratio was 0.49. From the regression results R2 was 0.716 with F-statistics of 24.491. Household size, farm size, extension visit, quantity of seed, and labour were the significant variables influencing pepper output in the study area. Based on the findings, the study concluded that pepper production was profitable in the study area and thereby recommended that policy which will encourage pepper production be formulated and implemented. Also, measures be put in place to the address the challenge of inadequate rainfall through proper irrigation policies.

AN ASSESSMENT OF CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND COPING STRATEGIES OF RICE FARMERS IN ABUJA

RESOURCE-USE EFFICIENCY OF CASSAVA (Manihot spp) PRODUCTION IN FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

The study was undertaken to determine the resource-use efficiency of cassava (manihot spp) production in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 320 respondents for the study. Data were collected using questionnaire and the data collected were analyzed. The results of the analysis show that 90% of the respondents were male while 67.81% were between the ages of 31 and 60 years. Also, 82.81% of the respondents had between 1 to 5 persons in their household while 61.56 had a farming experience of between 1 to 10 years. The findings further revealed that 81.56 were married while 51.25% of the respondents did not have any formal education and 88.44 of the respondents were members of cooperatives. Meanwhile 72.5% of the respondents did not have access to credit while only 36.56% of the respondents had contacts with extension agents. The average farm size of respondents was 0.519 while the average annual income of the respondents was N100,787.5. The regression result of the factors influencing cassava output among farmers in the study area revealed that farming experience, labour, household size, age and extension contact each had significant influence on the productivity of cassava among farmers in the study area. The result for the resource use efficiency in cassava production in the study shows that labour was underutilized, while roots, agrochemicals and fertilizer was overutilized. The cost and returns analysis of cassava production in the study area shows that 62% of the total variable cost was spent on labour. The total variable cost was 173,242.76, while the gross margin ratio was 0.29, with a return on investment of 1.4. The result further shows that clashes between herdsmen and farmers, alongside inadequate funds, ranked as the most significant production constraint faced by cassava farmers in the study area.

The study recommended that government should make proper policies which will help bring a lasting solution to farmers-herders clashes. Measures such as the proper planning and execution of input supply and logistics should be put in place by relevant government agencies will help ensure efficiency in the fertilizer supply chain thus bringing fertilizers closer to the farm gate at affordable cassava and at the right time, quantity and quality, and Technical trainings on production techniques or practices should organized for farmers that support the optimum use of resources like labour, seeds, agrochemicals and farm size, in order to ensure that cassava productivity is maximized.

Palm ProductionINVESTIGATED FARMERS’ PERCEPTION AND AWARENESS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS (A CASE STUDY OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS (BT.) COWPEA (VIGNA LUNGWULATA)) IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

 ABSTRACT

The study investigated farmers’ perception and awareness of genetically modified crops (a case study of Bacillus thuringiensis (bt.) cowpea (vigna lungwulata)) in Kaduna State, Nigeria. primary data was used for the study. A random sampling technique was used to select two hundred (200) respondents for the study. Data were collected using a well-structured questionnaire and oral interviews. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a Logit model. From the results of the analysis majority (71.5%) of farmers were between the ages of 30 and 49 years. About 78.5% of farmers were male, most (76%) of farmers were married. Majority (92%) of farmers of Genetically Modified Cowpea had a monthly income below N100, 001. 83% of the farmers knew biotechnology. About 80% of the respondent had access to adequate information about the crop under study. Majority (73.75%) frequently obtained information about Bt Cowpea from radio in the study area, and the majority 74.50% had no contact with extension agents. About 46% of the farmers get their information from their radio. From the results, pest resistance was ranked 1st in order of importance based on the perception of the farmers about 81% of the respondents agreed. Maximum Likelihood Estimates (MLE) of the logit model presented shows that the coefficients of educational level (P<0.05) and contact with extension agent (P<0.05) were the significant factors influencing acceptance of genetically modified cowpea by farmers in the study area. It was concluded that farmers had a positive perception and awareness of genetically modified crops a case study of Bacillus thuringiensis (bt.) cowpea (vigna lungwulata), in Kaduna State. Based on the results it was recommended that females be encourage to policy incentives to cultivate Bt cowpea, a policy should be put in place that would make more credit/funds available to farmers in the study area, and extension agents do more to convey information about technologies to farmers so they don’t get misleading information on the radio.

FOOD SECURITY AND POVERTY STATUS OF MAIZE FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study examined the Food Security and Poverty Status of Maize Farming Households in Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria. Cross sectional data from primary source were used for the study. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select a total of two hundred and seventy (270) farmers used for the study. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for the study. HFIAS, Multinomial logit regression analysis, Probit regression model, t-Test, Z-Test, and correlation matrix were used to analyze the stated objectives in the study. The results from the study revealed that the mean year of farmers was 39.98 years, 82.22 % of the maize farmers were men. 49.63% of the households were food insecure, 29.26% were moderately food secure, and 21.11%. Foster, Greer and Thorbecke indices revealed that Poverty incidence was 61.10%, poverty gap was 28.6% poverty severity was 16.8%. The Probit regression model revealed that the coefficients of age of maize farmer (P<0.01), farm size (P<0.01), dependency ratio (P<0.01), access to credit (P<0.1), and member of cooperative society (P<0.01) were the significant factors determining poverty status among the maize farmer. The Multinomial Logit regression results also revealed that the coefficients of access to credit, total income, and farm size with estimated marginal effect of -0.0793, -0.0735, and 0.0921 in the first group. Access to credit, total income had a negative coefficient with implies an inverse relationship to the reference group. Farm size had positive coefficient which implies a direct relationship to the reference group. Also, eating less expensive, and borrowing money to buy food were the major coping strategies used by maize farmers. Based on the findings of the study, the study recommended that adequate monitoring framework be put in place to ensure proper utilization of credit to avoid misappropriation/diversion by beneficiary, and that more policy targeted and improving the standard of living of these farmers be implemented.

 ECONOMIC IMPACT ANALYSIS OF VALUE CHAIN DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (VCDP) ON FOOD SECURITY AND PRODUCTIVITY OF RICE FARMERS IN NIGER STATE, NIGERIA

 ABSTRACT

The study analyzed the economic impact of value chain development programme on food security and productivity of rice farmers in Niger State, Nigeria. Primary data were used for the study. Data were collected with the aid of a well-structured questionnaire. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select a total sample size of two hundred and ninety-two (292) rice farmers which comprised of one hundred and fifty-five (155) value chain development program beneficiaries and one hundred and thirty-seven (137) non- beneficiaries. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, gross margin analysis, financial analysis, food security index, total factor productivity, Tobit model analysis, Logit model analysis, double-difference method / difference-in-difference method (DD), propensity score matching (PSM), principal component analysis, F-Chow test, and t-test. The results from the study revealed that the 65.81% of the rice farmers who benefited from the value chain program were male. Most (74.19%) of the rice farmers beneficiaries were married. Majority (65.81%) of the rice farmers that benefited from the value chain development program were less than 50 years of age. The mean age was 46.91years. About 55.48% of the rice farmers who were beneficiaries had less than 11 persons as members of household size. Also, 48.91% of the non-beneficiaries of value chain development programme were at sub-optimal productivity level, while 36.13% of the beneficiaries were at super-optimal productivity level. The result of the Tobit regression estimates shows that the significant factors influencing total factor productivity were: that household size (P< 0.10), farm experience (P< 0.10), labour input (P< 0.10), and farm size (P< 0.10). Gender (P< 0.10), household size (P< 0.01), farm experience (P< 0.10), access to credit (P< 0.05), and labour input (P< 0.10), were the significant factors influencing food security among the rice value chain development program beneficiaries in the study area. The gross margin ratio for value chain development program beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries was 88% and 71% respectively. Rice production in the study area was profitable. The net farm income difference-in-difference between respondents was N365, 853.8623. About 61% and 27% of the beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of value chain development program were food secured based on head count ratio. The two-third mean per capita food expenditure for beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries were 13, 203.954 Naira and 4, 759.605 Naira respectively. The result of the difference-in-difference regression analysis showed that treatment (P< 0.10), period (P< 0.01), interaction (P< 0.10), level of education (P< 0.10), and farm experience (P< 0.10), were statistically significant variables influencing the net farm income of rice farmers in the study area. The coefficient of Average Treatment Effect for all matching algorithms for yields and net farm income of rice farmers such as nearest neighbor, radius, kernel, and stratification were significant at (P< 0.01). This shows that value chain development program impacted positively on yields and net farm income of rice farmers. The study recommends that extension officers should be employed to train rice farmers. Also, governments are advised to put policies in place that will help remove bottlenecks in accessing agricultural loans. Interest free loans or low-interest loans should be made available to rice farmers to increase productivity.

AN APPRAISAL OF MATERIALS HANDLING MANAGEMENT IN MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN NIGERIA (A STUDY OF BUA CEMENT COMPANY)

 ABSTRACT

The study appraised the efficiency of materials handling management in manufacturing firms in Nigeria. This study was conducted at BUA Cement Plc Abuja located at Lead way House, Plot 1061 Herbert Macaulay Way, Central Business District, Abuja. The study population constituted mainly BUA Cement Plc staff especially those in the production department, store/warehouse, sales/marketing, and finance. According to the Human Resource officer, this population amounts to 125 staff. Proportionate – random sampling was used to select a total sample size of ninety-five (95) staff from the staff directory based on the calculated proportion per department. The sources of the data are a combination of primary and secondary. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, problem confrontation index, and t-Test analysis.

The result of the reliability test gave a Cronbachs’ alpha of 0.54 (54%). From the results, 90.5% of the respondents were men, while 9.5% were women. All the respondents were between 30 to 50 years old with a mean age of 37.30 years. About 93.7% of the employee have completed at least 6 years in school. From the result, out of every 16 employees, only one had non-formal education in the factory. Most (45.3%) of the respondents were married. Furthermore, 61.1% of the employee in the study area had more than 11 years of experience in the factory. First In, First Out (FIFO) was the material handling and management techniques adopted by the company. From the results, on-time delivery of raw material to the production line was ranked first based on the perception of the employees as the major effect of the material handling technique adopted on the performance of the employee. Infrastructural Challenges was rank 1st in the order of importance based on the perception of the employees as the major constraints faced in material handling management. Employment of Skilled Labour was ranked first based on the perception of the employees as the best way to Improve the Efficiency of Material Handing in Management. All the stated hypotheses were rejected otherwise accepted. Based on the findings of the study it was recommended that the strategy maintains and ways to improve on it be develop and implement. Also, other companies not using this technique are enjoyed to adopt the technique, companies come together as part of their cooperate social responsibility to fix some of the infrastructural defects, and companies employ more experience people to fill up the vacancy. Employment of labor should be based on skillset and capabilities.

TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY AND CROP DIVERSIFICATION AMONG SMALLHOLDER SORGHUM FARMERS IN ABAJI AND KWALI AREA COUNCILS, FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, NIGERIA

 ABSTRACT

This study examined total factor productivity and crop diversification among smallholder sorghum farmers in Abaji and Kwali Area Councils, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria. Primary data were used for this study. Data were obtained from a well-structured questionnaire administered to two hundred and nineteen (219) smallholder sorghum farmers. The respondents were selected through a multi-stage random sampling technique. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, total factor productivity index, crop diversification index, Herfindahl – Hirchman Index (HHI), Simpsom’s Index of diversification, gross margin analysis, financial analysis, Tobit model analysis, Logit model analysis, Stochastic frontier model, Z –Test analysis, and t-Test analysis. The result shows that 62.10% of the smallholder sorghum farmers were above 60 years of age. About 36.53% of the farmers had between 5 – 7 persons as household members. The mean values of total factor productivity, Herfindahl – Hirschman and Simpson diversification indices were 0.100884, 0.5324, and 0.4958 respectively. The gross margin for smallholder sorghum farming was estimated to be N122, 586.91 per hectare. Level of education (P<0.05), years of experience (P<0.05), members of cooperative society (P<0.05), crop diversification index (P<0.10), and farm size (P<0.05) were the significant factors influencing total factor productivity of smallholder sorghum farmers. Marital status (P<0.10), household size (P<0.05), farm experience (P<0.01), and farm size (P<0.01), were significant factors influencing crop diversification index.  Labour (P<0.01), fertilizer (P<0.10), agrochemicals (P<0.01) and seed input (P<0.01) were significant factors influencing output of sorghum production. Inefficiency component of stochastic frontier model shows that contact with extension agent (P<0.05), level of education (P<0.05), and farm experience (P<0.10) were statistically significant variables. The mean technical efficiency of the smallholder sorghum farmers was 0.57(57%) leaving a gap of 43% for improvement. The study recommended that smallholder sorghum farmers should diversify into more agricultural production enterprises in order to achieve food self-sufficiency and increase family income.

 ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF STORAGE PRACTICES AMONG COWPEA FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN NASSARAWA STATE, NIGERIA

EVALUATE THE MARKETING OF FLUTED PUMPKIN (TELFAIRIA OCCIDENTALIS) IN ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA.

 THE IMPACT OF WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT AND COMPANIES’ PERFORMANCE

 ASSESS THE USAGE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN ENGAGING THE YOUTHS IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, NIGERIA

IMPACT OF MIDDLEMEN ON MARKETING CHANNEL OF RICE IN ABUJA

Abstracts

The study determined the impact of middlemen on marketing channel of rice in Abuja. Primary data was used for this study. This study employed purposive and multi-stage random sampling techniques for selecting the rice marketers. Two hundred and forty (240) rice marketers each from the sampling frame was used for the study. The data set was analyzed using descriptive statistics, marketing efficiency and margin formula, and t-test analysis. From the results of the analysis about 75.83% of the respondents was females, 84.99% of the marketers were below 50 years with a mean age of 40 years. Also, 87.5% of the rice marketers had household size of below 10 inhabitants. The mean household size was 7 persons. About 51.88% of the respondents were married while only about 27.20% of them were single. 70% of the rice Marketers didn’t belong to cooperative society. The average distance to the market was 29.2Km. The average net margins for farmers, processors, wholesalers were ₦6,361.18, ₦5,534.52, and ₦4,162.70 respectively. The marketing efficiency was 30%, 73%, and 16% between the farmer and processor, processor and wholesaler, wholesaler and consumer respectively. The Total Gross Marketing Margin for rice is estimated at 57%. The marketing margin was 35%, 30%, and 15% between the farmer and processor, processor and wholesaler, wholesaler and consumer respectively. It can be concluded that rice marketing was a profitable enterprise in the study area. The study revealed about three intermediaries or middlemen in the marketing of rice in the study area. Based on the study findings, it is recommended that, government should provide an enabling environment through the provision of needed infrastructural facilities especially good roads to help improve the marketing efficiency., and the rice marketers should form an association to regulate market price and prevent the effect of glut in supply, and more people should be encouraged to venture into rice business since the enterprise was found have a relatively profitable marketing margin

DETERMINE THE ADOPTION OF IMPROVED RICE VARIETY IN GWAGWALADA AREA COUNCIL OF FCT, ABUJA, NIGERIA

THE IMPACT OF NON- GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS’ AGRICULTURAL SERVICES ON FARMERS’ PRODUCTIVITY IN FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY-ABUJA

ABSTRACT

The study is to assessed the impact of the activities of some selected Agricultural services Non-Governmental Organizations on Agricultural productivity of farmers in the Federal Capital Territory Abuja. Primary and secondary data were used for the study. A multistage sampling technique was used to select a total of one hundred and seventy-eight (178) farmers for this study. The dataset was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The tools include Stochastic Frontier Model, Total Factor Productivity Index (TFP), Propensity Scoring Matching, and Tobit Regression Model. The stated hypotheses were tested with t-Test and Chow-Test Analysis. The results of the reliability test presented a Cronbach’s alphas of 0.561 (56.1%). Further results reveled that about 62.92% of the rice farmers who benefited from the NGO services were male, (68.54%) rice farmers who do not benefit from the NGO services were male. The mean age of rice farmers beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries was 47.61 and 47.13 respectively, the mean household sizes were 5.51 and 5.38 people for beneficiaries, non-beneficiaries. Also, the results show that the beneficiaries of the program hard a higher output. Advisory service was the major intervention given by the NGOs to the farmers on the study. Timely communication of Agricultural Services initiatives was the major strategy employed by the NGOS to improve productivity. The average technical efficiency was estimated to be 0.7299 and 0.8380 for non-beneficiaries and beneficiaries respectively. The coefficient of average treatment effect on yield of rice farmers for nearest neighbour, radius, kernel, and stratification were positive. Nearest neighbour, radius, and kernel matching algorithms were significant at 1%, 5%, and 1% probability levels respectively. Farm size, fertilizer inputs, agrochemicals input, labour employed, farm experience, household size, and marital status were significant in influencing rice productivity. Based on the findings of this study, all the stated hypotheses were rejected. It was concluded that NGO agricultural activities impacted positively on the productivity of rice farmers in FCT and the beneficiaries of NGO agricultural services were more technically efficient. The study recommended that the government need to put in place policy and modalities that will encourage effective participation of relevant Non-governmental Organizations in agricultural development programmes.

ECONOMIES OF SCALE AND TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF TOMATO (Solanum lycopersicum) PRODUCTION IN GWAGWALADA AND ABAJI AREA COUNCILS,

FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study examined the economies of scale and technical efficiency of tomatoes (Solanium lycopersicum) production in Gwagwalada and Abaji Area Councils, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria. Primary data were used for this study. The respondents were selected through a multi-stage random sampling technique. Data were obtained through a well-structured questionnaire administered to three hundred (300) smallholder tomato farmers. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, total factor productivity index, gross margin analysis, financial analysis, Stochastic production frontier model, z –Test analysis, and t-Test analysis. The results showed that 53% of the tomato farmers were females, while 47% were males. About 69% of tomato farmers fell below the age 50 years. The mean household size was about 12 members per household. The average farming experience was 28.49 years. Distribution of respondents according to marital status revealed that 37.67% of the tomato farmers were married, 29.33% were single, and 33% were widowed. Tomato farmers were less productive as their total factor productivity (TFP) indices were below the optimal scale. The gross margin of 760, 863.28 Naira per hectare shows that tomato production in the study area was profitable. The estimated stochastic production frontier function of tomato farmers showed that farm size (P<0.10), seed (P<0.10), fertilizer input (P<0.10), labour input employed (P<0.05) had positive coefficients and were statistically significant. Agrochemicals (P<0.01) had negative coefficient and was statistically significant. The inefficiency component of tomato production revealed that educational level (P<0.10), farm experience (P<0.10), and contact with extension agents (P<0.10), were statistically significant. The mean technical efficiency of the smallholder tomato farmers was 0.78(78%) leaving a gap of 22% for improvement. The return to scale was 0.18225. This implies that output (yield) increase by less than one percent if all inputs were increased by one percent. Herdsmen and farmers-clashes was the major constraints faced by tomato farmers. The study recommends that smallholder tomato farmers should be provided with improved seedling by extension agents and Agricultural Development Project (ADP). Government should encourage more youth to venture into tomato farming by providing soft loans since it was found to be profitable and extension officers should be employed to train tomato farmers and introduce to the farmers new production inputs and technologies.

Palm ProductionTHE EFFECT OF DEBT BURDEN ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA 1980-2019

ABSTRACT

The study evaluated the effect of debt burden on economic development for the period of 1980-2019. The data were obtained from the CBN Statistical Bulletin and analyzed using econometric methods, adopted the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS), Augmented Dickey-Fuller Unit Root test, Auto Regressive Distributed Lag Model, and Bounds Test. From the results, the mean value of external and domestic debt burden was N1.539 billion and N0.048 billion respectively. The mean school enrolment rate was 31.85% and the mean real GDP was N33, 725.22 billion. Results from the ADF test carried out revealed that the variables were stationary at the level and first difference. Results from the bound test revealed that there is a long-run relationship between per capita income and debt burden. Findings from the ARDL model revealed that external debt has a positive significant relationship with economic growth in the short run and long run. The external debt stock of Nigeria has warranted a significant positive effect on the nation’s gross domestic product (GDP) within the period under study; the domestic debt on the other hand exerts a significant negative effect on GDP. The result of the analysis also revealed that the external debt stock of Nigeria exerts a negative and significant effect on per capita income. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that external debts when compared with domestic debt should be encouraged given the positive impact on the GDP, borrowing should be done only when there is a pressing need and such loans should be sourced from within, and Debt Management Office (DMO) should set mechanisms to ensure that loans are utilized for the purpose for which they were acquired.

ADOPTION OF CERTIFIED SEEDS AMONG FARMERS IN KWALI AREA COUNCIL FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, ABUJA

ABSTRACT

Seed is the most vital and crucial agricultural input, and increased crop production and productivity can be obtained through the adoption and use of improved seeds. This study evaluated the adoption rate of improved certified seed among local farmers in the Kwali area council, FCT, Abuja, and the impact of NASC being situated in the same environs. Primary data collected from the field was used for this study. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select the respondents (smallholder farmers) needed for this study. A total of 213 smallholder farmers were randomly selected from each village from the list of farmers (sampling frame).  Data collected were analysed using both descriptive statistics and inferential statistics for data analysis. From the results of the study majority of the respondents were between the ages of 21 and 40 years with a mean age of 37.52 years. Most of the smallholder farmers that had formal education, were male, and married. Most of the farmers cultivated maize and they got their seed from the once they saved in the previous cropping season. The majority of the respondents were aware of certified seeds for over 5 years and were using certified seeds in their farms because of the promise of better yield and quality assurance. The farmers posited that certified seed was cleaner than saved seed and free from diseases; damaged or immature seeds. Lack of access to extension services was the major challenge faced by farmers in the study area. It was concluded that most farmers adopted certified seeds and their participations in the programs of the National Agricultural Seeds Council on improved certified seeds had an impact on the rate of adoption of certified seed. Based on the findings, the study recommended that policymakers innovate strategies that will incorporate women into crop production, implement strict policies that will help protect the business of seed companies given that farmers recycle their seeds and they give to their fellow farmers; and more awareness and advisory campaigns should be developed and implemented by NASC so that the Area Council being the host of the National Headquarters of the NASC will have a 100% adoption rate.

 ANALYSIS OF SMALLHOLDERS’ FARMERS DECSION TO USE AGROCHEMICALS INPUTS IN TARABA STATE, NIGERIA

EFFECTS OF LAND TENURE SYSTEMS AND LABOUR UTILIZATIONS ON PRODUCTIVITY AND RESOURCE-USE EFFICIENCY OF RICE FARMERS’ IN FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, ABUJA, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study examined the effects of land tenure systems and labour utilizations on the productivity and resource-use efficiency of rice farmers in Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria. Primary data were used for the study. Data were collected with the aid of a well-structured questionnaire. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select a total sample size of three hundred and forty-nine (349) rice farmers in Abaji, Kwali, Gwagwalada, and Bwari Area Councils of Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, gross margin analysis, financial analysis, total factor productivity, resource-use efficiency index, Probit model, Stochastic frontier model, principal component analysis, problem confrontation index, and t-test. The results from the study area revealed that 84.24% of the rice farmers were married. Majority (68%) of the rice farmers were less than 50 years of age. The mean age was 44 years. About 67% of the rice farmers has less than 12 people as household size. The gross margin ratio and benefit cost ratio for the average rice farmers in the study area were 49.7% and 1.99 respectively. The total farm revenue of the rice farmers is ₦394,203.25. Rice production in the study area is profitable. The result of total factor productivity indicated that 62.18% of the rice farmers were at sub-optimal productivity level, while 19.2% were at super-optimal productivity level. The result further shows that inputs used in rice production are not optimally utilized. Farm size (0.18), fertilizer application (0.43), agrochemicals (0.37) and seed (0.69) were over-utilized while labour (1.64) was under-utilized. The result of Probit model estimates shows that the significant factors influencing resource-use efficiency for rice production were farming experience (P<0.05), fertilizer application (P<0.01), members of cooperative society (P<0.10), level of education (P<0.05), mode of land acquisition (P<0.05), and land tenure systems (P<0.10). The result of the stochastic frontier production function revealed that seed (P< 0.10), land acquisition (P<0.01), fertilizer application (P<0.01) and labour utilized (P<0.10) were the significant factors influencing technical efficiency of rice production in the study area. Also, in the inefficient component of the stochastic frontier the statistically significant factors are gender (P<0.05) and farming experience (P<0.10). The mean technical efficiency of 0.75. The study further revealed that large portion of the land (over 94%) used for rice production are acquired through inheritance mode of land acquisition and communal land tenure system respectively. Similarly, hired labour (85%) predominant the types of labour utilized for rice production in the study area. The principal component analysis shows that the major constraints faced by the rice farmers were intermittent clashes of herdsmen and farmers, inadequate funding and bureaucracy procedures in accessing credit facilities from financial institutions and support schemes. Based on the findings, the study recommends that collaborative efforts by security agencies should be intensified to clamp down insistent clashes between farmers and herdsmen, grazing route should be provided for herdsmen and intensive rearing of cattle should be encouraged. Government agencies and international donors should provide simplified accessibility and availability of credit and grants to existing and prospective rice farmers. Land policy that will enhance availability and accessibility of land to all citizens particularly those interested in agricultural should be promulgated and put into implementation. Lastly, extension services should be intensified to address training and capacity needs of the farmers so as to reduce wastage and inappropriate application of inputs such as fertilizer and agrochemicals in order to improve their utilization and increase level of technical efficiency.

 PROFITABILITY AND EFFICIENCY OF RESOURCE UTILIZATION IN TOMATO PRODUCTION AMONG FARMERS IN PLATEAU STATE

 ABSTRACT

The study determined the profitability and efficiency of resource utilization in tomato production among farmers in Plateau state. Primary data were used for the study. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select a total of two hundred and fifty (250) tomato farmers used for the study. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for the study. Result of the socio-economic characteristics of the tomato farmers show that about 75.76 % of the tomato farmers were women, majority of the farmers had formal education. Most of the tomato farmers are married.  Majority (45.6%) of the tomato farmers had a household size between 6 to 10 persons. The net farm income was calculated to be N406, 164.84 which means that on average a tomato farmer in the study area earned a profit of N406, 164.84. The return on investment was 2.0. This indicates that tomato production in the study area was profitable. The multiple regression analysis result showed that seed inputs (X1), labour (X3), farm size (X4), farm experience (X7) were statistically significant at 5%, 1%, 1%, and 10% probability level respectively.  The results of the resource use efficiency analysis show that the efficiency ratio (r) of seed inputs, Labour, and farm size was greater than 1, while agrochemicals and fertilizer had r less than 1. Unavailability of quality seeds was rank 1st in the order of importance based on the perception of the Tomato farmers with mean score of 2.62. All the stated null hypothesis was rejected. Based on the findings of the study, the study recommended that youths are advised to venture into tomato farming to create jobs for themselves and reduce the over dependence on white collar jobs; credit facilities be made available and accessible at a relatively low interest rate to tomato farmers in the study area to boost and encourage production, and tomato farmers were enjoyed to strive toward efficient utilization of resource for optimum production. They are advice to venture into value addition program and course that will build their technical know-how in tomato production.

 ECONOMICS OF HOUSEHOLDS INCOME DISTRIBUTIONS AND TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY AMONG SESAME FARMERS IN NASSARAWA STATE, NIGERIA

SOCIO ECONOMIC AND INSTITUTIONAL DETERMINANTS OF YOUTH’S PARTICIPATION IN RICE PRODUCTION IN KOGI AND NASARAWA STATES

COSTS AND RETURNS ANALYSIS OF PEPPER (Capsicum species) PRODUCTION IN KUJE AREA COUNCIL, FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, NIGERIA

THE ROLE OF ICT IN DISSEMINATION OF MAIZE TECHNOLOGIES IN GWAGWALADA AREA COUNCIL OF FCT, ABUJA, NIGERIA

ANALYSES THE WILLINGNESS OF RICE FARMERS TO ADOPT SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION METHOD IN KADUNA, NIGERIA

DETERMINE THE PROFITABILITY AND TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF RICE PRODUCTION AMONG FARMERS IN ABUJA

 EFFECT OF GROWTH ENHANCEMENT SCHEME ON MAIZE FARMERS FOOD SECURITY STATUS IN GWAGWALADA AREA COUNCIL OF ABUJA, NIGERIA

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